If you’ve ever run an app on Heroku, you may have come across log messages produced by the Heroku router and wondered about their unusual formatting:
at=info method=GET path=/ host=mutelight.org fwd="22.214.171.124" dyno=web.2 connect=4ms service=8ms status=200 bytes=1653
This curious format is unofficially known as “logfmt”, and at Heroku we’ve adopted it as a standard to provide some consistency across internal components. I’ve never been able to find any good posts providing any context or background for logfmt, so I’ve put together this short write-up.
At its core, logfmt is just a basic way of displaying key/value pairs in such a way that its output is readable by a human or a computer, while at the same time not being absolutely optimal for either.
Especially with a bit of practice and colorized output, it’s pretty easy for a human being to see what’s going on here which is of course a core value for any good logging format. At the same time, building a machine parser for the format is trivial so any of our internal components can ingest logs produced by any other component. Splunk also recommends the same format under their best practices so we can be sure that it can be used to search and analyze all our logs in the long term.
A major advantage provided by logfmt is that it helps to eliminate any guesswork that a developer would have to make while deciding what to log. Take the following line in a more traditional logging format for example:
INFO [ConsumerFetcherManager-1382721708341] Stopping all fetchers (kafka.consumer.ConsumerFetcherManager)
While writing this code, a developer would’ve had to decide how to format the log line like placing the manager’s identifier in square brackets at the beginning, the module name in parenthesis at the end, with some general information in the middle. Convention can help a lot here, but it’s still something that a developer has to think about it. Furthermore, what if they want to add another piece of data like number of open fetchers? Does that belong on a new line, or in another set of brackets somewhere?
An equivalent logfmt line might look this:
level=info tag=stopping_fetchers id=ConsumerFetcherManager-1382721708341 module=kafka.consumer.ConsumerFetcherManager
Readability isn’t compromised too much, and all the developer has to do is dump any information that they think is important. Adding another piece of data is no different, just append
num_open_fetchers=3 to the end. The developer also knows that if for any reason they need to generate a statistic on-the-fly like the average number of fetchers still open, they’ll easily be able to do that with a simple Splunk (or equivalent) query:
tag=stopping_fetchers | stats p50(num_open_fetchers) p95(num_open_fetchers) p99(num_open_fetchers)
Note — Added after original publication (on March 30, 2016) to reflect changes to the recommended best practices.
logfmt may be more readable than something like JSON, but it’s still difficult to scan quickly for humans. To improve that, I’d recommend using the approach seen in logrus and including a human readable message with every log line:
level=info msg="Stopping all fetchers" tag=stopping_fetchers id=ConsumerFetcherManager-1382721708341 module=kafka.consumer.ConsumerFetcherManager
In development, a log output formatter can then give the
msg field special
treatment by displaying it in way that a human can easily read (along with
other special fields like
info | Stopping all fetchers module=kafka.consumer.ConsumerFetcherManager info | Performing log compaction module=kafka.compacter.LogCompactionManager info | Performing garbage collection module=kafka.cleaner.GarbageCollectionManager info | Starting all fetchers module=kafka.consumer.ConsumerFetcherManager
I’d also recommend introducing a convention to assign a machine-friendly “tag” field so that any of these lines can still easily be found with a Splunk search:
info | Stopping all fetchers tag=stopping_fetchers module=kafka.consumer.ConsumerFetcherManager info | Performing log compaction tag=log_compaction module=kafka.compacter.LogCompactionManager info | Performing garbage collection tag=garbage_collection module=kafka.cleaner.GarbageCollectionManager info | Starting all fetchers tag=starting_fetchers module=kafka.consumer.ConsumerFetcherManager
logfmt also lends itself well to building context around operations. Inside a request for example, as important information becomes available, it can be added to a request-specific context and included with every log line published by the app. This may not seem immediately useful, but it can be very helpful while debugging in production later, as only a single log line need be found to get a good idea of what’s going on.
For instance, consider this simple Sinatra app:
def authenticate! @user = User.authenticate!(env["HTTP_AUTHORIZATION"]) || throw(401) log_context.merge! user: @user.email, user_id: @user.id end def find_app @app = App.find!(params[:id]) log_context.merge! app: @app.name, app_id: @app.id end before do log "Starting request", tag: "request_start" end get "/:id" do authenticate! find_app! end after do log "Finished request", tag: "request_finish", status: response.status end error do e = env["sinatra.error"] log "Request errored", tag: "request_error", error_class: e.class.name, error_message: e.message end
Typical logging produced as part of a request might look like this:
msg="Request finished" tag=request_finish status=200 email@example.com user_id=1234 app=mutelight app_id=1234
The value becomes even more apparent when we consider what would be logged on an error, which automatically contains some key information to help with debugging (note that in real life, we’d include a stack trace as well):
msg="Request errored" tag=request_error error_class=NoMethodError error_message="undefined method `serialize' for nil:NilClass" firstname.lastname@example.org user_id=1234 app=mutelight app_id=1234
A few projects from already exist to help parse logfmt in various languages:
Did I make a mistake? Please consider sending a pull request.